The Ruy Lopez is named after 16th-century Spanish priest Ruy López de Segura. It is one of the most popular openings, with such a vast number of variations that all codes from C60 to C99 in the Encyclopaedia of Chess Openings (ECO) are assigned to them.
The French Defence is a chess opening characterised by the moves: 1. e4 e6 This is most commonly followed by 2.d4 d5, with Black intending ...c5 at a later stage, attacking White's centre and gaining space on the queenside.
Chess traps are moves which may tempt a chess opponent to play a losing move. Traps are common in all phases of the game; in the opening, some traps have occurred often enough that they have acquired names.